Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 5th World Bioenergy Congress and Expo Madrid, Spain.

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Day 1 :

Bioenergy 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Lew P Christopher photo
Biography:

Dr. Lew Christopher holds a Masters degree in Chemical Engineering, Ph.D. degree in Biotechnology, and has more than 20 years of industrial and academic experience. Currently he serves as Director of the Biorefining Research Institute at Lakehead University. His research mission is to add value to the emerging Bioeconomy by applying an integrated biorefinery approach to the development of renewable energy technologies. Dr. Christopher is member of the editorial board of several international biotechnology journals, advisory boards, and professional societies. He has made over 400 scientific contributions to the field of bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass.

Abstract:

The global trend for production of bioenergy and bioproducts from renewable  resources is currently steered  by three important drivers: 1) diminishing reserves of readily recoverable oil and fluctuating oil prices; 2) growing food and energy needs; and 3) increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The global production of plant biomass, over 90% of which is lignocellulose,  is about 2 x 1011  tons per year, with up to 2 x 1010 tons  of  the  primary  biomass  remaining  potentially  accessible  and available for bioprocessing. Current estimates indicate that the global energy demand will continue to increase and reach 653 exajoules (EJ) in 2020) and 812 EJ in 2035. At a price of $107 per oil barrel, the cost of the lignocellulosic  feedstock (US  $2.6/GJ at  $50/dry ton biomass)  is lower than natural gas ($3.3/GJ) and crude oil ($17.2/GJ). However, at the current low oil prices, the cost of lignocellulose conversion ($20/GJ) exceeds  nearly  twice that  of  fossil  fuels,  which necessitates  further optimization of the biomass conversion routes. Lignocellulosic biorefineries are   the  ultimate  integrated  biomass  conversion facilities   that  are nowadays viewed as one of the major economic pillars of the emerging global Bioeconomy. However,  less than 10%  of thel global fuels and chemicals production is currently  biobased. This is mainly  due to the fact that bioproducts are  not yet cost-competitive  to their petroleum-based counterparts. As the biomass feedstock comprises about 50% on average of the total production costs, it has now been recognized that low-value biomass and biomass waste streams can provide a cost-effective alternative  to improve  the economic viability  of  biorefineries.  Among other, this approach offers  two major advantages: 1) significantly lower bienergy production costs; 2) significantly reduce waste treatment costs, carbon footprint and GHG emissions. This presentation will discuss opportunities for valorization of industrial, agricultural and municipal biomass waste   and  related technological challenges that we need  to overcome in  our  transition  to  a  low-cost  bioresource  economy and biobased society.

Keynote Forum

Animesh Dutta

University of Guelph, Canada

Keynote: Biocarbon, biomethene, and biofertilizer from corn residue: A circular economy concept

Time : 09:25-09:50

Bioenergy 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Animesh Dutta photo
Biography:

Animesh Dutta is a Professor and Director of Bio-renewable Innovation Lab, and Associate Director, Graduate studies with the School of Engineering at the University of Guelph. Dr Dutta is specialized in advanced energy systems and thermo-fluid science with hands-on experience in reactor design and pilot plant operation, design and performance of various tests in laboratory scale and pilot scale units, thermal design and process development. In his career, he has published over 75 peer-reviewed journal papers, 3 book chapters, and has roughly 85 conference publications and reports.

Abstract:

The three major challenges in the 21st century are food security, climate change and energy sustainability. Bioenergy is one promising renewable energy source with low net CO2 emissions and potentially sustainable if the economical, environmental and social impacts are properly managed. The development of clean and economically viable biomass conversion technologies for a domestic market is thus imperative to promote the local utilization of biomass residues in Canada.  Recently Ontario Government of Canada passed the waste free Ontario, 2016 act which is the Resource Recovery and Circular Economy act (Bill 151, 2016). In the “Circular Economy act” resource recovery, and waste reduction strategy will create opportunities and markets of recovered resources.  This will minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental impacts in the strategy of “Waste-Free Ontario”. In this research a hybrid thermochemical and biochemical approach is proposed to produce biocoal, biomethene and biofertilizer from corn residue (CR) using the concept of circular economy. In this approach, CR is first pretreated in hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to produce solid biocoal. HTC process water (HTPW), a co-product of HTC processing underwent fast digestion under anaerobic conditions (AD) to produce biomethene and biofertilizer. Effects of operating conditions (process temperature and residence time) on both bio-coal and HTPW contents were studied. This process produced hybrid bioenergy of 15.71 MJ kg-1 of raw CR with an overall energy yield of 86.65%. Biocarbon produced in 240C for 30 min and 260C for 10 to 30 min were comparable to pulverised coal used in power plants, which contained HHVs of 23.01 MJkg-1 to 24.70 MJkg-1. Nutrient enriched AD digestate is useable as liquid fertilizer. Biocoal, biomethene and bio-fertilizer produced at 240C for 30 min HT process can contribute to the circular economy enrichment and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Ontario.

Keynote Forum

Weilan Shao

Jiangsu University, China

Keynote: Advanced molecular techniques to improve the activity and production of lignocellulases

Time : 09:50-10:15

Bioenergy 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Weilan Shao photo
Biography:

Weilan Shao has completed her PhD from the University of Georgia and postdoctoral studies from University of Wisconsin. She has been a distinguished professor Jiangnan University, Nanjing normal University and Jiangsu University in China since 2000. Dr. Shao and her group have discovered  a  series  of  novel  lignocellulases,  the  key  aldehyde  dehydrogenase  for  ethanol formation, the repressor/operator system coupling glycolysis and fermentation pathways, and the regulation mechanism of thermophilic ethanol fermentation. Dr. Shao also invents new techniques for industrial enzyme production and modification.

 

Abstract:

Many   interesting   and   important   tests   are   stopped   at   protein preparation from a target gene, and the industrial applications of lignocellulases  are hindered by the high costs of enzyme production. A gene expression system of E. coli, pHsh, was constructed to enhance the production of recombinant enzymes by using the consensus promoter of heat shock (Hsh) proteins. The target gene in pHsh is under the control of an alternative sigma factor, σ32, and its expression is induced by a temperature up-shift. The presence of pHsh increases σ32 concentration in E. coli cells, which could strengthen the transcription of heat shock chaperons.  Therefore,  pHsh  exhibits  advantages  in  allowing  healthful growth of recombinant cells, increasing production of target protein, and decreasing   inclusion   body   formation.   Based   on   pHsh   system   and mediated   by  a  thermostable   DNA  ligase,   in  situ  error-prone   PCR technique has been developed to perform directed evolution in a step of PCR amplification and plate selection. Combining the techniques of pHsh expression, site-directed mutagenesis, and directed evolution, we are able to modify genes coding for lignocellulases  with desired properties,  e.g. the  genes  encoding  extremely  thermostable  xylanase  and  laccase  have been improved, and enzymes can be efficiently produced for biobleaching pulp at high temperatures.  These advanced techniques  will enhance the biodegradation  of lignocellulosic  biomass for the industrial  applications of bioenergy.

Keynote Forum

Rintu Banerjee

IIT Kharagpur, India

Keynote: An Overview of Biofuel Production in India: Scope and Future Goal

Time : 10:15-10:40

Bioenergy 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Rintu Banerjee photo
Biography:

Rintu Banerjee, Ex-MNRE- Chair-Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur has created a niche of her own in the area of Biomass Deconstruction/Biofuel Production/Enzyme Technology. In the process of her innovative development, she was granted 8 Indian, 3 International (US, Japanese and Chinese) patents. She has published more than 150 papers in peer-reviewed national/international journals, guided 27 (17 continuing) Ph.Ds, 3 MS, 71 (3 continuing) M.Techs, 50 (2 continuing) B.Techs. She is the Editorial member of many Journals. She has written 24 book chapters and authored a book on “Environmental Biotechnology” published by Oxford University Press. She is recipient of various awards/honours given by both government/non-government organizations.

Abstract:

India the second most populated country after China is    one of the largest emitter of green house gases (GHG).  Transport sector of India accounts to 13 percent energy-related carbon-dioxide emissions. However, the ever-expanding transport sector can become more eco-friendly and sustainable by channelling the climate change agendas through cutting edge biotechnological research.  The transport emissions and demand of gasoline can be reduced by adopting a sustainability approach, which includes long term goals such as increased use of public transport, higher production of biofuel, and improved vehicle efficiency. The current policy scenarios illustrates that in the next two decades India’s primary energy demand will double, from 750 Mtoe in 2011 to 1469 Mtoe in 2030. In this perspective, biofuel are emerging as the most promising alternative options to conventional fuels, as they can be produced locally, and can substitute diesel or gasoline to meet the transportation sector’s energy requirements. Specifically second generation biofuel could have positive implications for national energy security, local air quality and GHG mitigation, employment generation and rural development. The present work highlights the current status and potential of biofuel in India, identifies key challenges in achieving the country’s biofuel targets, and analyses their role in India’s long-term transport scenarios. IIT Kharagpur engaged in lignocellulosic biofuel production utilizing non-edible lignocellulosic biomass. The entire 2G biofuel production process is cost effective enzymatic venture where in-house enzymes are being produced from the new isolates from local habitat and thus, is devoid of any chemical use that makes the process eco-friendly and sustainable in nature with the integrated approach of bio-refinery having improved yield of bioethanol, biomethane and biobutanol. 

Break: Group Photo & Coffee Break @ Foyer 10:40-11:00

  • Track 7: Biogas
    Track 10: Bioenergy Applications

Session Introduction

Jana Zabranska

University of Chemistry and Technology, Czech Republic

Title: Bioconversion of carbon dioxide in biogas to methane

Time : 11:00-11:20

Speaker
Biography:

Jana Zabranska is a member of the academic staff of the Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering in the Faculty of Technology of Environment Protection, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague. She is engaged in the field of anaerobic digestion, degradability and methane yield from different substrates. Currently she is involved in the research of biogas production from agroindustrial wastes and biological removal of hydrogensulfide from biogas. She is a supervisor of Master and Doctor Degree students and has lectures on subjects "Anaerobic technology in environmental protection" and "Technology of biogas and biohydrogen production". She is authored and co-authored 273 scientific papers, 3 technological patents, 6 textbooks and 2 monographs. Prof. Zábranská is a member of International Water Association, Specialist group of Anaerobic Digestion, Sludge Management, a member of Czech Biogas Association, Czech Water Association, member of the Committee of the Czech Biotechnology Society.

Abstract:

Biogas produced from organic wastes contains energetically usable methane and unavoidable content of carbon dioxide. The exploitation of whole biogas energy is locally limited and utilization of natural gas transport system requires CO2 removal or conversion to methane. Chemical methods of upgrading biogas to biomethane have disadvantage in demand of high pressure and temperature. Biological conversion of CO2 and hydrogen to methane is well known reaction and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic bacteria. Reducing equivalents to biotransformation of carbon dioxide from biogas or other resources to biomethane can be supplied by external hydrogen. The rapidly developing renewable energy carriers include electricity from wind and solar energy. Discontinuous electricity production combined with fluctuating utilization cause serious storage problems that can be solved by power-to-gas strategy representing production of storable hydrogen via electrolysis of water. Possibility of subsequent repowering of energy of hydrogen to the easily utilizable and transportable form is biological conversion with CO2 to biomethane. The aim of our project is to find the optimal conditions of the technology of biological reduction of CO2 with H2 in terms of process parameters and device type. Biomethanization of CO2 can be applied directly to anaerobic digesters being fed with organic substrates, or in external bioreactors. Experiments started with hybrid anaerobic reactors (upflow sludge bed reactor with packed bed in the upper part) fed with distillery slops as organic substrate and gaseous hydrogen was introduced to the bottom of reactor. The major bottleneck in the process is gas-liquid mass transfer of H2 and the method of effective input of hydrogen into the system have to be optimized. The possibilities of an implementation of the technology to biogas plants will be suggested based on results of the project.

William H. L Stafford

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa

Title: Green economic development in the City of Johannesburg: production of biogas to fuel city buses

Time : 11:20-11:40

Speaker
Biography:

William Stafford is a life scientist with R&D experience spanning twenty years. His research encompasses diverse fields of biochemistry, biotechnology, microbial ecology, systems biology, holistic resource management, industrial ecology, renewable energy and permaculture. As a senior researcher at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), an overarching research question is: How can our natural resources be used sustainably for the benefit of all? Current research involves assessing various technology options, value-chains and alternate development scenarios to guide project and policy developments for the transition to a Green Economy and a more sustainable development path. Bioenergy is currently a research focus area that addresses a multiple development objectives; such as economic feasibility, social acceptance, environmental impacts and the allocation of biomass resources for the production of food, fuel, timber, chemicals and fibres in the growing Bio-economy.

Abstract:

The City of Johannesburg has explored the opportunity of using biogas to fuel its buses in the drive to be low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. This study explored the feasibility of using biogas to fuel buses in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa. Biogas is a renewable fuel that can be used for electrical power, heating/cooling, and as a transport fuel. However, the use of biogas for transportation delivers more financial value-adding compared to using biogas for electricity- US$18/GJ for transport fuel and US$9/GJ for electricity. In addition, the use of biogas to fuel city buses has additional local benefits; such as reducing air pollution from vehicle tail-pipe emissions, reducing traffic congestion, and enhancing the social inclusivity of transportation. The cultivation of land and use of energy crops as feedstock for biogas production will require at least seven hectares per bus; which will place additional demands on the city’s scarce land resources and create potential conflicts with food production. Biodegradable wastes are alternative feedstock for biogas production that avoids these impacts and can be supplied at a cost that is currently competitive with the price of other transport fuels, such as diesel and petrol. However, the feasibility depends on the combined economies of scale for biogas production, upgrading and distribution; such that large-scale biogas production (>2000Nm3/h) is required to compete with petrol and diesel market prices. Using size-location modelling, we identified the optimal locations for two large biogas facilities that use the organic fraction of municipal solid waste as feedstock to produce upgraded biogas that can fuel up to six-hundred city buses. The benefits of this project include diverting organic waste from landfill, reducing carbon emissions, improving local air quality, increasing transportation efficiency, delivering new opportunities for transit orientated development and facilitating the transition to a Green economy.

Dana Pokorna

University of Chemistry and Technology, Czech Republic

Title: Biogas desulfurization by autotrophic denitrification – temperature dependence

Time : 11:40-12:00

Speaker
Biography:

Dana Pokorna is Assistant Prof. at the Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology of Environment Protection, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague. Main areas of her interest are anaerobic biodegradation of organic substrates, determination of anaerobic biomass activity, analytical determination of byproducts and end products of anaerobic degradation, biogas cleaning (H2S removal), upgrading biogas to biomethan and transformation of CO2 to biomethan. She is the member of International Water Association (IWA) and European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB), the member of Czech Biogas Association and Czech Water Association and the member of the Czech Biotechnology Society Committee.

Abstract:

Biogas utilization is complicated when it contains hydrogensulfide coming from reduction of sulfur compounds during anaerobic digestion. There are many methods for desulfurization of biogas, but biological one based on activity of sulfur bacteria are advantageous from  ecological and economical points of view. Our research was focused on the removal of hydrogensulfide from biogas by water scrubbing and on the treatment of washing liquid in a separate bioreactor with sulfur bacteria. The bioreactor was packed with a plastic carrier for immobilization of bacteria and operated in upflow mode so that sulfates were the final forms of sulfur. These bacteria can use oxygen or nitrates as electron acceptors during oxidation of sulfides and both oxidizing agents were studied. Process efficiency depends mainly on sulfide loading rate, dosed amount of oxygen, molar ratio S/N when nitrates were used, pH and temperature. In the case of nitrates addition bacteria of genus Paracoccus, Thiobacillus denitrificans and Thiobacillus thioparus were detected in biomass by FISH analysis. According to literature, the bacteria of genus Paracoccus have optimum for growth at high pH 6.5 – 10.5 and this fact was confirmed by our study, where bioreactor operation was stable and effective at pH over 10. Molar ratio S/N, which influences end products of autotrophic denitrification, has been set on value 0.55. The dependence of the process efficiency on temperature was studied for three temperatures: 20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C and the highest loading rate of sulfides (350.9 mg·L-1·d-1) and N-NO-3 (258.6 mg·L-1·d-1) with sufficient efficiency was reached at temperature 30 °C. Our research has demonstrated the suitability of biological desulphurization of biogas in the external packed bed reactor with immobilized sulfur bacteria with oxygen and nitrate as oxidizing agents. Especially, desulfurization with nitrates can be advantageously included as autotrophic denitrification in the wastewater treatment line.

Speaker
Biography:

Rikke Lybæk has expertise in renewable energy planning and resource management in the transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. She specializes within the field of biomass utilization for the production of renewable energy, and work with concepts like bio-economy, industrial ecology and eco- efficiency. She has worked with e.g. biogas and thermal gasification technologies in many countries in Asia over the last 15 years, like Thailand, Malaysia, India and Japan, as well as within the EU. Her research focus is to establish decentralized energy systems in local communities based on indigenous biomass resources, and to apply a bottom up - a participatory approach - to the deployment of renewable energy technologies locally. 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: This paper seeks to investigate the opportunities for implementing a Centralized biogas plant in Thailand, as a supplement to the existing Farm biogas plant concepts. This will be researched by identifying a subsector within the agriculture, where such type of plants would be valuable to deploy. Case studies of a local community; Tambon Ban Kor, in North East Thailand thus reviles that dairy cattle farmers, who deliver milk to a dairy company, could benefit extensively from such facility. The study indicates that current challenges regarding GHG emissions, manure handling practices, like spill of nitrogen, low milk yield and inappropriate cattle diets etc., can be improved on the cattle farms, by better housekeeping, as well as supply of manure to the local dairy. Here, fossil fuels use could be substituted by renewable energy from biogas, and the energy used at various temperature levels by cascading. The paper further reviles that large amount of appropriate and available feedstock for the suggested biogas plants are assessable within the community, and currently pose an environmental problem, or re-used inefficiently. The Centralized biogas plant will thus provide a development ‘hub’ for bio-economic solutions to evolve, and constitute to a platform for new income and product outputs opportunities, as renewable energy production as well as various environmental benefits within rural Thailand. 

Speaker
Biography:

Shiho Ishikawa received a Masters degree in Agriculture from the Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, Japan in 2004 and a Ph.D. degree in Agriculture from the Hokkaido University in 2015. Following this, after working as an engineer at a private consulting company, she currently works for Hokkaido University, as an assistant professor and the Institute for laboratory where she is involved in several research projects related to smart grids. Currently she performs research on energy characteristics by using biogas generators for renewable energy resources and control algorithms for demand-side management on farm.

Abstract:

In Japan, since the enforcement of the Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme for renewable energy (RE) power sources in 2012, the number of solar photovoltaic power sources and other RE power sources connected to power grids has been rapidly increasing. Biogas plants (BGPs) with anaerobic digestion are receiving high attention as facilities for both livestock manure treatment and electric power generation. In addition, the promotion of renewable energy sources by FIT led to BGPs becoming valued for their reduced environmental impact and stability because their energy output is largely unaffected by natural conditions and fluctuates little on a daily basis. The objective of this study is to evaluate an individual BGP which has been in operation since 2000 from the point of view of energy production and economics. In this study, the power balance for a BGP was verified using actual measurement to assess the potential for electricity supply from the plant. The FIT scheme in Japan requires a fermenter and subsequent power generation facilities to be certified based on the idea that a fermenter, a gas holder, and a power generator are part and parcel of a BGP. In this study, the electricity required by fermenters was handled as in-house power and was taken from that generated at the BGP. We used two evaluation methods. First, to estimate how global warming gas varies by BGP systems, we use life cycle assessment. The second evaluation method, was made by comparing fossil energy input for constructing, running, and maintaining a BGP with energy outputs in the form of electric power, heat, and digested manure. The energy pay-back time based on the centralized BGP was calculated from the energy inputs and outputs.

Endro Gunawan

Indonesian Center for Agricultural Socio Economic and Policy Studies, Indonesia

Title: Utilization of palm oil processing waste (palm oil mill effluent/POME) as a biogas raw material in Indonesia: Economic and institution approach

Time : 12:40-13:00

Speaker
Biography:

Endro Gunawan has expertise in agricultural economic and public policy. He is evaluating the model of agricultural bio industry where the farming system has zero waste and environmental friendly. He is pursuing his PhD at Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Thailand major on agribusiness management. He conducts research on agricultural supply chain and the assessment of warehouse receipt system for agrcultural commodities in Indonesia.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: The growth of average energy consumption in Indonesia is 7% higher than the global energy consumption (5.6%). The growing of population number also effect in incraesing on energy demand. Indonesia need to find new alternative energy to change the oil and gas as a non-renewable resources. Oil palm is the main plantation commodity in Indonesia which is the raw material of CPO production. One of CPO processing by-product is palm oil processing waste known as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The utilization of POME into biogas as an environmental friendly alternative fuel needs to be further improved in line with the times and support sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential and the utilization of palm oil processing waste (POME) as a biogas raw material in Rokan Hulu District, Riau Province-Indonesia. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The research was conducted in 2015 in Rokan Hulu District, Riau Province. Primary data were collected through direct interviews using structured questionnaires to oil palm farmers and users of oil palm biogas. The data analysed by quantitatively and qualitatively analysis. Furthermore, for the development of biogas presented an economic comparison analysis between Biogas Power Plant with Diesel Power Plant. Data analysis results are presented in the form of analytical tables which then discussed descriptively. Findings: Riau province has the potential POME waste in 2015 amounted to 29.01 million tons. The potential of this waste is generated from oil palm plantation area of ​​about 2.40 million hectares with production potential of fresh bunches (TBS) amounted to 47.98 million tons/year. Total palm oil processing unit (PKS) in Riau as many as 223 units with an average production capacity of 9.670 tons/hour, so that in a year it takes about 58.02 million tonnes of TBS. Biogas Power Plant (PLT Biogas) in Riau has an installed capacity of 1 MW is equivalent to 30 tonnes of TBS per hour. From such capacity is currently only used about 75%, with total customers as much as 1,540 families covering three villages. The economic advantages from PLT Biogas compared with diesel power are: a) cost electricity customers biogas electricity is much cheaper than diesel (Rp. 45.000 vs Rp. 120.000 per month), b) price per KWh of electricity is cheaper (Rp. 1.900 vs Rp. 4.000 per KWh), c) operating time up to 24 hours, d) quality more stable electric current. 

Diana Andrade

Bavarian State Research Centre of Agriculture., Germany

Title: Evaluation of mechanical comminution as substrate pretreatment in biogas production

Time : 13:00-13:15

Speaker
Biography:

Diana Andrade, was born in Barranquilla Colombia, were she graduate in 2002 as civil engineer. She moved to Germany in 2003 after collecting some experiences as a researcher in the topic aerobic degradation for waste water treatment. She obtained her Master of Science degree in Ecology Engineering and Environmental Planning from Technical University of Munich in 2007 with a focus on renewable energy. Since then she works as senior researcher for the Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Animal Husbandry in the Bavarian State Research Centre for Agriculture in the research group biogas technology and waste management. Her research concentrated in the optimization of the anaerobic degradation process of lignocellulose materials for the biogas production and the effect of nutrients supplementation on the biogas process.

Abstract:

The improved utilization of the energy potential of agricultural biomass is of tremendous importance. But anaerobic microbiological processes can only, very slowly and incompletely, break up the lignocellulose matrix of a typical agricultural biomass. There is, therefore, an urgent need for economically viable technologies for the pretreatment of biomass which improves subsequent microbiological utilization. A mechanical comminution of the biomass reduces it to smaller particle sizes. It should lead to an exposure of the surface of the solid substrates and facilitate their accessibility for anaerobic microorganisms. The main focus of the experiment is the determination of the possible influence of selected mechanical comminution of typical agricultural substrates on the biogas process. To represent the market offer, five different mechanical crushing technologies were compared. The comparison is made by applying the comminution technologies to a selection of agricultural substrates for biogas production: maize silage, grass silage, cow dung and Hungarian energy grass silage. The comminuted substrates and different comminution technologies were investigated in batch tests. Here, two substrates (maize silage and cow dung) were selected in combination with two technologies (hammer mill and cross flow chopper) to show the highest biogas production increase in order to investigate the effect further under semicontinuous flow conditions. With the statistical evaluation in the batch experiment, it was found that the substrate selection is the variable which has the greatest influence on the measured methane yield, regardless of the technology or the treatment. In addition, the relevance of the treatment could be demonstrated if the rate of substrate degradation was also considered. Under semicontinuous flow conditions, an increase in biogas productivity (maize silage up to 17% and cow dung up to 22%) could be measured by the mechanical substrate preparation. Furthermore, a positive effect on the degradation kinetics of the substrates was demonstrated.

Speaker
Biography:

Simon Tappen has graduated as Bachelor and Master of Science in Biobased Products and Bioenergy at the University of Hohenheim. Moreover, he worked for thinkstep AG, a software and consulting company providing services concerning sustainability. Since 2014 he has been doing project work regarding emissions, energy efficiency and load management of biogas- driven cogeneration units, within the Technology Assessment Group at the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (Group leader: Dr. Mathias Effenberger).

Abstract:

Compared to volatile renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power, biogas plants have a specific advantage: The production and utilization of biogas can be decoupled to a certain degree in order to generate electricity (and heat) during times when it is needed most. In a field study, ten different modern cogeneration units (CGUs) operated on biogas were measured on site under full and part load conditions. Results on the electrical efficiency and emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydro carbons (THC) with the exhaust gas are presented. Observations on engine characteristics and the effect of part load operation will be discussed. For instance, part load resulted in declining electrical efficiency and increasing methane slip, both raising the environmental impact of electricity generation from biogas. In this context, potential positive and negative environmental effects provoked by emission regulations will be evaluated. Furthermore, project work on the load management of a biogas plant in dependence of the electricity demand of the institution’s research facilities will be presented.

David Balussou

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany

Title: A model-based analysis of future electricity production from biogas in Germany

Time : 14:30-14:45

Speaker
Biography:

David Balussou graduated as an energy and process engineer from the Ecole des Mines d’Albi in France. He is currently a PhD candidate at the Chair of Energy Economics of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). His work at KIT focuses on the analysis of current and future electricity production from biogas in Germany with the help of simulation and optimization models taking into account various subsidy schemes. His studies resulted in different publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings. 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: With the development of renewable energy sources in Germany the use of biogas for electricity and heat production has rapidly expanded in the past fifteen years. This expansion has been encouraged by several Federal governmental incentives and in particular by the electricity feed-in-tariffs introduced in the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Especially agricultural plants valorizing energy crops now constitute almost 80% of total biogas installations. However, volatile energy crops and electricity prices, combined with continuously evolving framework conditions, are a source of uncertainty for German plant operators. In this context, investment decision making for biogas plant projects is a difficult task that requires the development of decision support tools. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: To this end, a linear optimization model has been developed to analyze mid-term developments up to the year 2030 for German biogas plant capacity. An economically optimal development plan for three main installation types is foreseen at the Federal State level and under various scenarios. Findings: The results highlight the influence of regional biomass potentials, revenues and electricity production costs as well as plant flexibilization and decommissioning. Future capacity expansion should mainly concern small manure plants and biowaste installations rather than agricultural plants which should undergo only modest development. Conclusion & Significance: Based on the model results recommendations for plant operators and policy-makers are formulated. Maintaining current subsidy levels for biowaste and small manure installations appears necessary in order to ensure a sustainable development of German biogas plants. Strategic planning, flexible plant operation and the increased valorization of agricultural residues represent key challenges. The developed model is further transferrable to other countries employing feed-in-tariffs (e.g. France, Italy and United Kingdom). This would contribute to the elaboration of a common European biogas strategy strengthened by the exchange of best technical, regulatory and economic practices. 

 

Speaker
Biography:

P.Pachauri is working as Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Director (Projects and Planning) at Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology, Greater Noida. He has a rich teaching experience of 17 years. He has also been mentor for many innovative projects and motivator for startups. Many students are bringing up their startups under their guidance.  Prof Pachauri’s active participation in teaching endowed him with a profound sense for authoring 05 bestselling books on Mechanical Engineering and 15 research papers in national and international journals.  He is constructively active in strategic planning for a promising and prosperous future of NIET, Greater Noida. Prof. Pachauri has great experience of organizing 12 International/National conferences/ National Seminars. His sincere hard work has been acknowledged by Government of India by sanctioning him two research grants. Prof. Pachauri is life member of Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE), life member of Powder Metallurgy Association of India (PMAI) and faculty mentor for Society for Automotive Engineers India (SAE). He has built a team of young researcher to apply recent research findings to Entrepreneurship, Green Manufacturing, Bioenergy, Biomass and Biofuels.

Abstract:

The National Mission for a ‘Green India” aims to achieve an afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and to expand forest over from 23% to 33% of India’s territory by 2022. But, it is observed that there is no motivation for harnessing and nurturing the existing biomass resources and the required upgradation for biomass technologies. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a strategy to overcome the entrepreneurial challenges in Bioenergy sector. The proposed strategy is inspired by the concept of lean manufacturing and lean startup methodology. The Bioenergy sector is failing to achieve the desired goals because somewhere we are successfully executing a bad plan. It is the plan which needs to be calibrated again and again to avoid wastage of precious time and efforts. We can reduce the time between pivots by accepting the fact that entrepreneurship is management through validated learning. But, it needs lot of care to decide when to pivot. It is proposed that we should conduct usability tests to assess how the people involved in National Mission. The formation of Cross-functional teams and their improvement in their performance is suggested through Cohort Analysis and Predictive Monitoring. In the last the proposed strategy suggests how we can go faster for achievement of National Mission for a “Green India”.

  • Track 4: Renewable Energy
    Track 5: Bioenergy Transition
    Track 6: Processes for Bioenergy
    Track 8: Biodiesel
Speaker
Biography:

Patricia J Harvey is a Senior Expert in bioenergy value chains and the water-food-energy nexus, with particular focus on the use of algal and non-food plant systems for the capture of CO2, use of non-potable water and production of green chemicals and biofuels. She is the Coordinator of “The CO2 microalgae biorefinery: D-Factory”, a 10 million Euro FP7-Funded Project; “Macrobiocrude”, (EPSRC-funded); Non-food bio oil supply chains (EU-ACP-funded) aimed at capacity building measures in South Africa, Namibia and Ghana to create sustainable, non-food supply chains; Ecotec21 (EU-Interreg) which installed novel, biofuel-fired CHP technology at the University of Greenwich using bio oils and glycerol; Tuning algae for biofuel profitably (NERC, Innovate UK).

Abstract:

Statement of the problem: Global energy consumption will grow by up to 50% by 2035; 60% more food will be needed and global water use for irrigation could increase by 10% by 2050. Glycerol, a new biofuel and by-product of biodiesel manufacture, is planned to be combusted using new engine technology (410kW electrical; 450kW thermal) to provide heat and power at the University of Greenwich UK, provided sufficient reliable supplies of glycerol can be sourced at the right specification. Biofuels, however, can necessitate substantial water inputs depending on feedstock production: by 2030, the global blue biofuel water footprint might have grown to 5.5% of the totally available blue water for humans, causing extra pressure on fresh water resources. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The blue water footprint of the net energy provided by microalgal biofuels has been concluded to be significantly smaller compared with fuels from other energy crops. Extremophile, halotolerant microalgae such as Dunaliella produce glycerol without the requirement to process lipids to release the glycerol. The potential for commercial glycerol production from Dunaliella is examined in the D-Factory, a €10m, 14-partner, FP7-funded project (2013-2017).

Findings: Dunaliella can be cultivated at large-scale in hypersaline water using solar energy and with minimal fresh water and flue-gas CO2.  These algae can be processed for glycerol and a range of high-value products for disease mitigation, and biomass can be used in new food products and in feedstuffs. A demonstration is underway to show the potential for commercialization of algae such as Dunaliella.  From this work, the scope to produce commodities such as glycerol from algae is discussed in the context of the water-food-energy nexus and circular economy.

Conclusion & Significance: Awareness of the water-food-energy nexus offers opportunities to utilize algae sustainably for the production of biobased products. 

David M. Babson

Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office, USA

Title: Enabling Next Generation Biofuels and Bioproducts for the Emerging Bioeconomy

Time : 15:05-15:25

Speaker
Biography:

David Babson is a Technology Manager in the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) at the U.S. Department of Energy. He oversees several projects for BETO’s Conversion Program, and works to understand how to leverage new technologies to advance the bioeconomy and to address global energy and climate challenges. Based in Washington, DC, David has extensive research and policy experience. Before joining BETO he advocated for sustainable transportation solutions as a Senior Fuels Engineer at the Union of Concerned Scientists, and served as an AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, where he reviewed key initiatives like the Renewable Fuel Standard. Before starting his fellowship he completed post-docs at the University of Minnesota’s Biotechnology Institute and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. David received a PhD in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering from Rutgers University and a BS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. 

Abstract:

Advances in biotechnology and the emerging bio-economy are providing a unique opportunity to revolutionize the production of renewable bio-based fuels and products, which will allow the future bio-economy to play a direct role in achieving greater carbon mitigation and sustainability goals – if the clean version of it can be realized.  However, a combination of factors including low oil, commodity, and carbon prices are altering the path of the bio-economy’s emergence and are hindering efforts to achieve more ambitious climate goals. These factors are therefore forcing a rethinking of the strategy for transitioning from cheaper first generation to more expensive next generation biofuels and bioproducts. This presentation will outline the social and economic environment in which the advanced bio-economy is emerging and will discuss and contextualize the challenges being faced in advancing clean and sustainable biotechnologies. The directed research efforts being supported and promoted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) will be discussed, and BETO’s strategies to support the evolution and emergence of the bio-economy on a sustainable path will be discussed.  However, precisely how the bio-economy emerges is key, since the sustainability of bio-based fuels and products is critically dependent on specific agriculture and industrial practices. As an example of this, the sustainability and performance metrics BETO uses and is developing to assess advanced bio-manufacturing, bio-processing, and biofuel production will be presented. Further, the linkages between biotechnology development, next generation bio-product performance, and the emergence of a sustainable bio-economy will be examined and will focus on the bio-economy’s prospects for managing carbon as a function of bio-based fuel and product performance. Finally, BETO’s efforts to more efficiently leverage biotechnologies to valorize second generation biomass resources, organic wastes and waste gases to produce renewable products and low carbon fuels will be outlined.      

Speaker
Biography:

Luís Cortez BSc in Agricultural Engineering from State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil (1980), MSc in Agricultural Engineering from Université Laval , Québec, Canada(1984) and PhD in Agricultural Engineering from Texas Tech University, USA (1989). Coordinator of the Energy Planning Center - NIPE-UNICAMP (1997-2002 and 2012-2013) and Adjunct Coordinator of Special Programs of FAPESP. Presently is a Professor at FEAGRI-UNICAMP and Vice-Rector of International Relations at UNICAMP. Has experience Bioenergy, mainly in sugarcane ethanol. Presently, works in verifying the potential ethanol production in selected countries of Latin America and Africa.

Abstract:

Nearly half of the renewable energy used worldwide is still in the form of unsustainable traditional biomass, bringing great problems to the users and to local environment. Among the main identified problems are: time consumed in its gathering, transport and final use; associated problems derived from inefficient cooking operation; and environmental problems regarding deforestation and impoverishment of soil. The paper discuss the advantages of using modern biomass, both in agriculture, conversion and final use, in an attempt to improve quality of life of users, the environment and also the socio-economic scenario, particularly in the developing countries. The paper also comments the apparent paradox of suggesting modern bioenergy in less developed countries where food security is a big concern. The thesis here is that sustainable bioenergy production may bring more efficiency to agriculture which will also result in more benefits to food security, as observed in countries like Brazil in the last 40 years of its main bioenergy program. Therefore, contrarily to what many researchers believe, modern bioenergy presents the essential features to meet needs of developing countries improving both food and fuel securities. 

Konstanze Stein

KEA Climate Protection and Energy Agency of Baden-Württemberg GmbH, Germany

Title: Business models for bioenergy villages-A compilation of main components of business models as part of the BIOVILL project

Time : 15:45-16:05

Speaker
Biography:

Konstanze Stein is Project Manager at KEA Climate Protection and Energy Agency Baden-Württemberg. She has been working for KEA since 2004, first at section grant programs and since 2005 at energy service development section. Konstanze has steered a lot of energy service projects in Baden-Württemberg and has advised municipalities regarding energy efficiency. Currently she works in the European BIOVILL project that focus on transfer of experience gained in countries where bioenergy villages already exists (Germany and Austria) to countries with less examples in this sector. The evaluation of existing bioenergy villages and the compilation of the different components of these business models are crucial elements of the project. 

Abstract:

Bioenergy villages have been implemented in Germany and Austria very successfully. This experience can be used for the initiation and preparation of more bioenergy villages in other European countries. The main challenge of the development of bioenergy villages is the social component. Structures have to be established that allow a broad citizen participation process and the integration of all relevant stake­holders and decision makers. When Energy conservation measures (ECMs) bundles are modelled, the results have to be revised with regard to the synergetic effects between ECMs and energy supply measures. High energy savings from measures in the buildings de­crease the energy demand and reduce the viability of e.g. a district heating system. Different types of biomass sources and renewable energies can be applied in different pathways in bioenergy villages. The assessment of the technical solutions typically follows technical, economic and environmental metrics. Three main operating models are applied that vary in accordance with the regional circumstances: The citizen model, the ESCO model and a combination of both models. The selection of the legal entity for the citizens model depends on criteria such as the structure of organisation, the liability and other risk factors, the minimum capital and the decision making process. The shared ownership model can also be applied, than public or private building owners finance a share of the measures, e.g. the ECM in their buildings. Regarding the economic assessment of the project, a life cycle analysis is recommended that covers full costs over the life-cycle and discounts these costs according to the year when they occur. Since bioenergy villages comprise extensive bundles of technical measures, the financing of these investments is a crucial point of the concepts. Besides the planning of the biomass supply and the technical and economic calculation, also the financing concept, the potential operating and the ownership models, the legal structure and the risk assessment should already be elaborated within the preparatory.

Break: Coffee Break @ Foyer 15:40-16:00

Speaker
Biography:

Elena is an independent environmentalist with expertise in data analysis. She has collaborated in research activities aiming to characterize how food security and other ecosystem services interact and how they are affected by climate change. As a member of the Computing department at the University of Surrey, she worked on the application of Bayesian Belief Networks for estimating the GHG emissions produced by the UK Agriculture sector at the Farm level (BaNGAS). In the Telecommunications and Electronics sector, she carried out research on the application of Artificial Intelligence techniques for improving the process followed to build the software embedded in electronic products. In Academia she lectured mainly in Data Processing, and carried out research in Knowledge based systems. She holds undergraduate qualifications in Computer Science Engineering, and post-graduate qualifications in Information Technology, Environmental & Energy Studies, and Artificial Intelligence.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: In the recent past, sustainable supply chain management practices have been developed, trying to integrate environmental concerns into organizations by reducing unintended negative consequences on the environment triggered by production and consumption processes. In parallel to this, circular economy pushes the frontiers of environmental sustainability by emphasizing the idea of transforming products in such a way that there are workable relationships between ecological systems and economic growth. The exchange of information across the supply chain is essential, to guarantee the success of both. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Renewable energy industry in Spain and determine the extent to which its underlying information framework enables a sustainable production of energy. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: using the Open Data indicators designed, it is possible to assess its maturity with regards to openness and information availability, key requirements of a successful circular economy to identify the sustainable flow across the energy supply chain. Findings: although there has been progress, most of them are independent and local efforts. Conclusion & Significance: awareness of information gaps is a necessary step in the process of alleviating the problems identified. Recommendations are made about ways in which the problems could be overcome.

Souman Rudra

University of Agder, Norway

Title: Process Analysis of Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae

Time : 16:45-17:05

Speaker
Biography:

Souman Rudra is currently working at the University of Agder, Norway as an associate professor since 2013. He conducts research and teaching within renewable energy technology - related to biomass conversion process and thermal energy systems and analysis of energy conversion systems in general.  He has his expertise in design, modeling, and simulation of the different energy system specially bio-energy system. Several articles have been published in this area.  Energy and exergy analysis, LCA analysis have also done for several of his design energy systems. Based on those analyses, he has proposed a quad-generation model for producing power, heat, cooling and SNG (synthesized natural gas).     

Abstract:

Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising process for future biofuel production. Complex reactions occurring during the process are not fully discovered, thus accurate simulations are not yet attainable. Several batch experiments have been seen but only a few continuous flow systems. Three different microalgae biomass were analyzed using TGA (Thermogravity analysis), Proximate analysis and Ultimate analysis. Properties from these algae analyses were used in the Aspen Plus simulation model. The Aspen Plus simulation tool was used to model the HTL of three species of algae.

The energy consumption of the main components was considered, and a process optimization was done by implementing a heat exchanger. Without a heat exchanger, a large amount of waste heat was not utilized in the system and it showed poor efficiency for the whole process. Still, there was potential for heat integration and optimization of the system. Water recycling, district heating or other options could be considered.

The efficiency of the system was improved when products in all the streams are utilized. S. platensis and P. tricornutum algae obtained 83 % energy efficiency for the HTL process. Annual production of biocude was 180,000 liters from S. platensis, 211,000 from C. vulgaris and 124,000 from P tricornutum. The outcome of the simulation is mainly determined by the composition of components in the product stream. 

Lucía Doyle

ttz Bremerhaven, Germany

Title: Urban waste as feedstock for biorefineries

Time : 17:05-17:20

Speaker
Biography:

Lucía Doyle is a Chemical Engineer and MSc in Energy and Fuels. With broad experience in renewable energy (solar, biomass and biofuels), waste valorization technologies and environmental engineering, she has worked both for large industrial projects and publicly funded R&D, participating and coordinating international research consortiums. Passionate about technological innovation, she is engaged in the development of sustainable products and renewable energy generation. She is currently Team Leader of the Renewable Energy and Resource Efficiency group at ttz Bremerhaven, provides independent consultancy services and cooperates as expert with the European Commission.

Abstract:

The demand for energy and raw materials is growing rapidly worldwide and how to satisfy it in a sustainable and economical way is one of the biggest challenges to face in the coming years. From energy and fuels to fertilization, our current technological growth and society still demand carbon-based raw materials. Biorefineries have been called to play a major role in the circular economy delivering these products by cascading and refining approaches, optimising the full chain resource efficiency. They are expected to contribute to an increased competitiveness and wealth of the countries by responding to the need for supplying a wide range of bio-based products and energy in an economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable manner (de Jong and Jungmeier 2015).

At the same time, urban waste is one of the greatest environmental impacts of our current way of life. Legislation such as the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), and of course sustainability requires a maximal re-use and recycling of the generated waste. Focusing on the organic fraction (OFMSW, sewage sludge) the inhomogeneity and impurity content of organic urban waste are major barriers for its real valorization. With anaerobic digestion (AD), composting and mechanical biological treatment (MBT) being the main technological options today, full valorization has not been achieved. Hindrances include pollutants causing microbial growth inhibition, physical problems like floating, and a significant fraction of the waste being lignocellulosic and hence not suitable for the case of AD, and pollutants content and low market value for the case of composting. MBT face the same issues. This results in the Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) still being complied with to a limited extent.

However, these organic waste streams can be used as feedstock for a biorefinery based on HTC technology, producing hydrochar and carbonaceous liquids, high value products that can be used as fuel, activated carbons for water treatment, soil remediation, carbon sequestration schemes and other applications.

Results from EU project NEWAPP demonstrated that solid fuels can be produced in sufficient quality as to be used as a solid fuel. Combustion has been proved technically viable. To facilitate market penetration, input has been provided to include HTC solid biofuel’s properties in international standard ISO 172-8. 

Speaker
Biography:

Hanieh is a Ph.D. candidate with particular interests in process engineering, waste management, and simulation. She holds a master’s and B.A. degree in chemical engineering from her home country, Iran. She is an active volunteer in academic societies when not busy. She currently lives with her husband, Sadegh, in St. john’s, Canada.

Abstract:

Biochar, a product of pyrolysis of biomass, represents an attractive alternative and, depending on the biomass source, sustainable adsorbent material for treating gaseous effluents. In this study, biochar sourced from three different woody biomasses (i.e. softwood shavings, softwood bark, and hardwood sawdust) were produced via fast pyrolysis at different pyrolysis temperature (400-500 ºC) in a 2-4 kg/h auger reactor. The produced biochars were characterized for elemental composition, surface area, morphology, proximate analysis, and thermal properties. The CO2 adsorption capacity of produced biochars was determined in a fixed-bed adsorption unit. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with a central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the impact of significant process factors on the adsorption capacity of biochar. Three variables were investigated including temperature (20-80 °C), the inlet flow rate (60-200 mL/min.g), and volume fraction of CO2 (20-100% (v/v)). The optimum CO2 capture capacity of biochar was obtained at an adsorption temperature of 20 ºC, CO2 volume fraction of 100%, and inlet flow rate of 60 ml/min. The ANOVA analysis illustrated that the quadratic model fitted the experimental data well. In addition, the effect of different biochars obtained from fast pyrolysis of softwood shavings and hardwood sawdust pyrolyzed at different pyrolysis temperatures were investigated at optimum conditions. Softwood shavings pyrolyzed at 500 ºC showed the highest CO2 uptake as it has the highest surface area (95.58m2/g).

Arvind K Tiwari

Noida Institute of Engineering & Technology (NIET), India

Title: Production of biodiesel by Jatropha A substitute fuel of diesel engine

Time : 17:35-17:45

Speaker
Biography:

A. K Tiwari a researcher in the field of combined cycle power plant and exergy analysis. Dr. Tiwari a passionate researcher in developing the new projects to save the energy which is wasting from a system and able to utilize in production of combined power and refrigeration/air-conditioning with cogeneration. Energy conservation not only increases the efficiency of the plant but also save environment in many ways. Furthermore his research has spread wings in the direction of Biofuels for existing conventional fuels like Diesel oil. To achieve the target he is conducting the experiments in his Institute (NIET, India) lab on biodiesel experimental setup. He has published various papers in international/national journals and conferences. Presently he is working as professor and head in chemical engineering department of Noida Institute of Engineering & Technology (NIET) Greater Noida, India. He has built a team of young researcher to apply recent research findings to Bioenergy, Biomass and Biofuels.

Abstract:

Biodiesel (fatty acids alkyl esters) is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil. Vegetable oils are more suitable source for biodiesel production compared to animal fats and waste cooking since they are renewable in nature.The raw material for biodiesel production in this research work is Jatropha plant. The seeds of Jatropha plants are collected & oil is extracted from it. Catalytic cracking of Jatropha oil can be a feasible method for production of biodiesel. Energy is a basic requirement for every sector of economic development in a country. As a result, energy demands have been steadily increasing along with the growth of human population and industrialization. Common sources of energy are petroleum, natural gas and coal from fossil fuels. This growing consumption of energy has rapidly depleted non-renewable sources of energy. Rising price of fossil-based fuels and potential shortage in the future have led to a major concern about the energy security in every country. Many types of methods have been developed to convert vegetable oil such as jatropha oil into biodiesel. The four main categories are the direct use of vegetable oil, micro-emulsion, thermal cracking and transesterification. Direct use of vegetable oil is not applicable to most of diesel engines as the high viscosity would damage the engine by causing coking and trumpet formation. Biodiesel obtained from micro-emulsion and thermal cracking methods would likely lead to incomplete combustion due to a low cetane number and energy content. Transesterification is the most common method for biodiesel production due to its simplicity, thus this method has been widely used to convert vegetable oil into biodiesel. Generally, vegetable oil or jatropha oil is consisted of a series of saturated and unsaturated monocarboxylic acids with trihydric alcohol glycerides. Transesterification reaction without using any catalyst requires a high temperature above the critical temperature of alcohol and this is called as supercritical method. In this method, alcohol e.g.methanol is turned into a supercritical fluid state by applying extreme pressure and temperature. The common reaction temperature is more than 250 ºC, as the critical temperature of methanol is 240 ºC. In this extreme environment, liquid methanol will reach critical point where both gas and liquid become indistinguishable fluids, in which it would exhibit properties of both liquid and gas.