Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd World Bioenergy Congress and Expo Rome, Italy.

Day 1 :

OMICS International Bioenergy 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Lew P. Christopher photo
Biography:

Lew Christopher holds a Masters degree in Chemical Engineering and a Ph.D. degree in Biotechnology. He has more than 25 years of industrial and academic experience in the field of industrial biotechnology and bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass. He has worked as industrial research scientist and held faculty positions in departments of biotechnology, chemical and biological engineering, and environmental engineering in South Africa and USA. Currently he serves as Director of the Biorefining Research Institute leading an interdisciplinary team of faculty and researchers from several science and engineering departments at Lakehead University in Canada. His research mission is to add value to the global Bioeconomy by applying an integrated biorefinery approach to the development of renewable bioenergy technologies. Dr. Christopher is a member of the editorial board of several international biotechnology journals, advisory boards, and professional societies. He has made over 400 scientific contributions to the field of Biomass Biorefining including 8 patents, 4 books, and over 50 invited lectures delivered in Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America.

Abstract:

Hydrogen (H2) is considered the “energy of the future” due to its high energy content (143 MJ/Kg) which is 5.3-fold and 3.3-fold higher than that of ethanol and gasoline, respectively, and non-polluting nature, with water as the only product. An environmentally-friendly alternative to the current H2 commercial production via steam reforming of methane is presented through microbial fermentation of simple sugars. However, a production processes based on glucose is not considered cost-competitive as the market price of glucose ($440-600/MT) is approximately 10-fold higher than the cost of lignocellulosics ($39-60/MT). Furthermore, the current cost of lignocellulose conversion to bioenergy (US $15-$25/GJ) exceeds the cost of fossil fuels (US $3.31-$17.37/GJ). A feasible, large-scale production of bio-H2 would require the development of advanced production processes such as Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP). CBP has been proposed as the ultimate industrial configuration for cost-efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. It was demonstrated that the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was able to ferment switchgrass to H2 in one step without any physicochemical or biological pretreatment, whereas H2 production from glucose reached the theoretical maximum for dark fermentation of 4 mol H2/mol glucose. As pretreatment is the single most cost-intensive processing step in biomass bioconversion (25% of total costs on average), combining four processing steps (biomass pretreatment, enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, biomass fermentation) into a single biorefinery operation makes C. saccharolyticus a promising CBP candidate for sustainable production of H2. The advantages of CBP, thermophiles and low-cost lignocellulosic feedstock for bioenergy production will be reviewed and discussed.

OMICS International Bioenergy 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Jianzhong Sun photo
Biography:

Jianzhong Sun has completed his PhD from Louisiana State University, USA and 2 year further postdoctoral career at same university. He was then to be hired as an assistan professor for 5 years at Mississippi State University, USA, and later, since 2009 he has served as an outstanding professor at Jiangsu University, China up to present time. Also, he is a director and founder of Biofuels Institute, Jiangsu University, a professional research organization that has hired more than 20 faculty and professionals with some graduate students. He has published more than 90 peer-reviewed papers in reputed SCI journals, 7 professional books (both in English and in Chinese) and has also served as a guest editor, editorial board member, as well as a refree for more than 20 international SCI journals. He is salso curently served as a vice president of China Energy Association.

Abstract:

In line with the requirements for sustainable economics and clean environments, biofuels from cellulosic biomass have recently received tremendous attention both in industry and academic communities worldwide. However, despite the surging popularity of biofuels as transportation alternatives, they in current have barely put a dent in our use of oil. It is clear that breakthrough technologies are still needed to overcome barriers, particularly for deeper understanding of biomass recalcitrance, developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. At present, it has become a world leading-edge research field to evaluate and mimic a variety of natural lignocellulosic systems, such as cellulose-eating animals, wood-feeding termites/insects, or other biomass utilization systems, to achieve efficient conversion and utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for fuels and chemicals. This review addresses various lignocellulolytic systems, their potential values, challenges, and opportunities that exist for scientists and industries to advance the biofuel technology, where the following topics will be further addressed: 1) Scientific and industrial potentials of the natural biomass utilization systems; 2) Novel biocatalysts explored from natural biomass utilization systems and their engineering potential for industrial uses; 3) Novel microbial symbionts discovered from natural biomass utilization systems by “omics” technologies; 4) Bioreactor innovations mimicked and advanced from the efficient biomass utilization systems by nature-inspired technology. With this overview, I hope that you can sense the excitement of the scientific endeavors both from China and the rest of world to crack the hard nut in developing lignocellulosic biofuels.

Keynote Forum

Michael Kottner

German Biogas and Bioenergy Society, Germany

Keynote: Germany's future biogas market – Back to the roots?

Time : 10:30-11:00

OMICS International Bioenergy 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Michael Kottner photo
Biography:

Michael Köttner is a Consultant, Senior Expert, as well as Managing Director of the International Biogas and Bioenergy Center of Competence (IBBK Fachgruppe Biogas GmbH) since 2000. He is Board Member of the German Biogas and Bioenergy Society, GERBIO/FnBB e.V.. With a Master’s degree as an Agricultural Biologist and as a trained farmer, he is professionally involved in Biogas and Bioenergy Technology for more than 25 years.

Abstract:

The presentation highlights the situation of Germany’s biogas sector looking at supporting energy policies, climate protecting technologies and market oriented economy of biogas plant operation. Starting from the current situation, it summarizes the development of the sector since the German Power Feed in Law and the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) entered in force in 1991 and 2000, and outlines several technologies that provide increased biogas yields and thus financial benefits for biogas plant operators. The German biogas industry has made remarkable progress in the recent years, now providing 5% of the national Electricity demand or 3 Mio. households. The EEG obligates grid system operators to give priority to plants generating electricity from renewable energy sources (solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy) in connecting them to their grid as well as in purchasing the electricity generated. Although remarkable progress has been made, the market potential is still not satisfied. Key findings are: (1) Nowadays, in total, more than 10500 biogas power plants are operating achieving an installed power capacity of about 5000 MW, (2) Energy crops are widely accepted as feedstock due to the special situation of Germany’s agriculture which is strongly integrated in the European agriculture market. Therefore, the production of food crops is regulated by market forces and policy rules. But the food versus fuel discussion as well as negative public perception of energy crop production and digestion is one of the many obstacles, which led to a severe reduction of feed in tariffs for new energy crop installations in 2014. (3) Co-fermentation and Biowaste Fermentation as technology option provide plant operators higher gas yields and economic benefits from waste treatment fees are now high on the political agenda. (4) The German government is aware of the economic and ecological potential and facilitates investment in on-farm micro scale digestion for the digestion of manure, in order to avoid greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage and handling. In the paper, case studies of trend setting projects and technologies will also be discussed.

Break: Group Photo & Coffee Break @ Foyer 11:00-11:20
  • Track 2: Biomass feed stocks for renewable energy generation
Location: -

Session Introduction

David Lewis

Muradel Pty Ltd, Victoria, Australia

Title: Microalgae - are they an appropriate feedstock for biofuels? What are the alternatives?

Time : 11:20-11:40

Speaker
Biography:

David is the CEO of Muradel, a company commercialising the production of sustainable oils from organic feedstocks. He is an experienced Chartered Chemical Engineer with a strong background in leadership. He is proficient at motivating teams and has operated in the mining, automation, hospitality and defence industries. A calculated risk-taker with wide industry knowledge, David has spent the last 10 years developing new commercial opportunities focused on sustainable products from renewable feedstocks. David is also a tenured Professor at the University of Adelaide in the School of Chemical Engineering where he supervises postgraduate students on projects involving bioprocess technology R&D.

Abstract:

Are microalgae derived biofuels anywhere near commercial reality? Over the past few years significant scale-up of appropriate processing technologies has been undertaken to further develop production of energy positive biofuels with carbon footprints less than fossil equivalents. Several companies have adopted hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as the method to convert biomass to hydrocarbon feedstocks, commonly known as green crude. A sub-critical water reaction is used to drive HTL. The true boiling point (TBP) distributions of green crude show equivalent data to fossil crude oils. The TBP for green crude derived from Tetraselmis sp. was found to be very similar to that of West Texas Intermediate crude oil, which can be readily fractionated to typical fuel components including approximately 30% petrol, 30% bunker fuel, 20% diesel and 20% jet fuel. Specific distillates can be blended with fossil derived distillates or used directly in the fuel supply chain. The yield and quality of green crude can be manipulated in several ways by manipulating either the biomass production protocols and/or manipulating the HTL reaction conditions. To realise commercialisation of biofuels feedstock costs must be minimal. This presentation will provide data that shows how the yield, quality and specificity of biofuel products derived from biomass generate commercial interest, but can economically viable processes be achieved?

Speaker
Biography:

Rob Mitchell is a Research Agronomist with the USDA-Agricultural Research Service in Lincoln, Nebraska. He is the Coordinator of the USDA Central-East Regional Biomass Research Center. Dr. Mitchell is a Fellow in the Crop Science Society of America and a Fellow in the American Society of Agronomy. In 2000, he was named the American Association of State Colleges of Agriculture and Renewable Resources National Outstanding Teacher. He has authored or co-authored more than 200 refereed journal publications, book chapters, proceedings, popular articles, cultivar releases and extension publications, and given more than 120 invited presentations.

Abstract:

Perennial C4 grasses are promising biomass feedstocks for the lignocellulosic bioenergy industry in the USA. Although the current perennial grass biomass feedstock market is limited, the recent emergence of cellulose-based biorefineries in the central USA has heightened interest in herbaceous perennials. The USDA location at Lincoln, NE has been conducting research on perennial grasses native the central USA since 1936, and specifically for bioenergy since 1990. Current research focuses on cultivar development, lignin composition and cell wall chemistry, as well as all aspects of establishment and management. The recent release of ‘Liberty’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), the first bioenergy-specific switchgrass cultivar released for the central USA, provides yield potential in excess of 18 Mg ha-1 and has excellent winter survival and drought tolerance. Additionally, low diversity grassland mixtures increase landscape-scale diversity and have produced field-scale baled yields in excess of 15 Mg ha-1 in rainfed conditions on marginally-productive cropland. In recent research, switchgrass grown for bioenergy at the field-scale has stored more than 2 Mg ha-1 year-1 of soil organic carbon. Greenhouse gas emissions, specifcally N2O emissions, were 2.7 to 5.1 times greater for corn than for perennial grasses when grown on marginally-productive cropland in the central USA. Research during the past 80 years has demonstrated clearly that native perennial C4 grasses are productive and economically and environmentally sustainable on rainfed cropland that is marginally productive for row crop agriculture in the central USA.

Taraneh Sowlati

The University of British of Columbia, Canada

Title: Optimization of sustainable forest-based biomass supply chains

Time : 12:00-12:20

Speaker
Biography:

Taraneh Sowlati is a professor at Department of Wood Science, The University of British of Columbia, Canada. She is involved with many projects. She has done many publications in National and International journals.

Abstract:

There has been an increased interest in using forest-based biomass as the feedstock in bioconversion facilities to produce bioenergy, biofuels and biomaterials in forest rich countries such as Canada. This renewable source has the potential to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, decrease emissions, and create jobs in rural communities which are important factors in sustainable development. Therefore, in addition to economic feasibility, the environmental and social impacts of this renewable source are other key factors in sustainable planning. Proper planning and decision making related to sourcing of biomass, its transportation and logistics, and production and distribution of bioproducts affect the cost competitiveness of bioproducts and the sustainability of its supply chain. Optimization and simulation models have been developed to support biomass supply chain planning. This talk highlights the complexities and issues related to forest-based biomass supply chains and the recent trends in modelling those supply chains. It focuses on the optimization models that we developed to incorporate uncertainty and variability, especially those related to the quality and quantity of biomass, into the modelling as well as those models to integrate economic, environmental and social impacts of forest-based biomass supply chains. The results of models applied to real case studies in Canada will also be presented.

Speaker
Biography:

Alberto Coz works as an associate professor at the University of Cantabria, Spain, and as an international relations manager in the school of nautical studies. His research interests are in the areas of biorefinery, waste valorisation in biofuels, bioproducts and ceramics as well as industrial waste characterisation and leaching behavior. He has worked in the direction and collaboration in Research and Development Projects at International, European and National level as well as transference results projects with the industrial sector. He has participated in 41 SCI papers, 1 invention patent, 111 international congresses and the supervision of 4 PhD dissertations.

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic waste materials represent one of the most promising sources of renewable resources to give useful products, due to their low economic value and high availability. In this sense, pulp and paper industries are perfect candidates to transform traditional pulp mills into modern biorefineries. In this work, the simulation process of the use of spent liquor from a sulphite pulp mill into biofuels and/or other products is studied. In order to fulfil this objective, the total characterisation of the liquor is obtained and the simulation of the entire plant is carried out by means of Aspen Plus® software and taking into account previous experimental results. Spent liquor consists mainly of lignosulphonates and phenolics from the lignin and sugar and other inhibitors from the hemicellulose. Different fractionation/detoxification methods can be used to separate both fractions; however, depending on the final fermentation step, the separation processes can vary. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by KBBE -2012-6-311935 European research project (BRIGIT) www.brigit-project.eu.

Speaker
Biography:

Axel Schmidt has studied Environmental Geoscience and Environmental Assessment and Management in Trier, Germany. Since two years, he is PhD student at the Soil Science Department of the University of Trier, where he is also employed as Scientific Associate. His research activities focus on the cultivation of perennial energy crops and the impact on soil properties and biochemical methane potential (BMP).

Abstract:

Miscanthus giganteus is a perennial low-input energy crop with very high biomass production and positive effects on soil properties and carbon sequestration. It is usually harvested in early spring for thermal combustion when the aboveground part of the plant is dead and dry. This material is less suitable for the production of biogas because it is relatively resistant to microbial decomposition due to its high content of lignified compounds. Therefore, the harvest in autumn is recommended to get better degradable material. One drawback can be that the plant is incapable of transfer nutrients back to the rhizomes where they are stored for the growth in the next year. To quantify the influence of different harvest dates (September, November, April) we analysed two different old Miscanthus giganteus fields (planted 1995 and 2008) over two years. We performed measurements of biomass yields, total and volatile solids and biogas and methane potential. Additionally we analysed the content of the main nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in different parts (leafs, stems, rhizomes) of the plants. To estimate the consequences of early harvest on the biomass and specific methane production samples were also taken and analysed from plots where Miscanthus giganteus was harvested in fall in the year before. Based on the results we can conclude that under the right cultivation management Miscanthus giganteus can be an auspicious alternative to other energy crops (e.g. maize) for biogas production according economic and in particular ecologic aspects.

Break: Lunch Break @ Restaurant 13:00-14:00
Speaker
Biography:

Nallusamy Sivakumar has completed his PhD from Bharathidasan University. He is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. His research areas are microbial fermentation, bioprocessing and bioactive compounds. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The increasing global demand for sustainable resources necessitates the complete utilization of feedstock. Wheat is a major global commodity and the milled wheat generating huge quantity of wheat bran as a waste which is underutilized. As wheat bran consists of 45% cellulose and hemicellulose, 15% starch, 6% lignin and 6% β-(1,3) / β-(1, 4) glucan, it has the potential to serve as low-cost feedstock for renewable energy. Keep this in mind, present study was aimed to convert the wheat bran into fermentable sugars for further production of polyhydroxybutyrate. The destarched wheat bran was pretreated with 1% NaOH and then subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase of Trichoderma reesei (37 FPU/g) and β - glucosidase of Aspergillus niger (15 CBU/g). After hydrolysis for 96h, 42.6 g/L glucose and 21.8 g/L xylose were produced. The overall sugar concentration was 60.3 g/L with a sugar yield of 0.620 mg/g of pretreated wheat bran. Further, the PHB producer, Ralstonia eutropha grown in this hydrolysate supplemented with mineral salt medium (C: N - 20) for 48h, produced PHB and cell density of 71.5% and 25.6 g/L respectively, with a productivity of 0.381 g/L/h.

Speaker
Biography:

Rintu Banerjee, Ex-MNRE-Chair-Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur has created a niche of her own in the area of Biomass Deconstruction/Biofuel Production/Enzyme Technology. In the process of her innovative development, she was granted 8Indian, 3International (US, Japanese and Chinese) patents. She has published more than 150 papers in peer-reviewed national/international journals, guided 26(15 continuing) Ph.Ds, 3MS, 71(3 continuing) M.Techs, 49(1 continuing) B.Techs. She is the Editorial member of many Journals. She has written 24 book chapters and authored a book on “Environmental Biotechnology” published by Oxford University Press. She is recipient of various awards/honours given by both government/non-government organizations.

Abstract:

Ever-increasing energy demand in developed as well as in developing nations has prompted worldwide interest in the production of biomass-based fuels as a substitute to petrolium fuels. At this juncture, biofuel production from biomass represents a sustainable resource and a better alternative for achieving zero emissions. This in turn necessitates the development of an efficient biomass delignification method, which is an essential prerequisite for the complete biofuel production process. Lignocellulosics such as Kans grass, sugarcane top, pineapple leaf waste, Bambusa bambos, Ricinus communis , Lantana camara and mixtrue contain 13-20 % lignin and 60-70 % carbohydrates within its cell walls. To make this enormous amount of carbohydrates more accessible for hydrolysis during fermentation, lignin degradation by yellow laccase has been attempted. In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) has been used to investigate the effects of the various process parameters on biomass delignification. The maximum 80-85 % delignification obtained for the above mentioned lignocellulsics within 5-6 h. Thorough study of the raw and pretretated biomass were carried out by elemental composition analyses and energy density measurement. Further structural characteristics of the enzymatically delignified substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and porosity analysis that supported the efficacy of the enzymatic delignification process.

Muhammed Khader Karunnappilli

Petrocare Engineering & Consultancy Services Private Limited, India

Title: Electricity generation by refined biogas from municipal solid waste

Time : 14:40-15:00

Speaker
Biography:

Muhammed Khader Karunnappilli completed his BTech in Mechanical Engineering from Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala and Piping Engineering from IIT Bombay. He is a major stake holder of Clear Vision Group of Companies for contracting in KSA, UAE & India. Petrocare is a consultancy service in India in the field of Engineering and Waste Management. He attended waste management summits conducted by CII & Saudi Environment Forum.

Abstract:

We have a special project proposed and negotiating with Kalamassery Municipal Corporation (neighboring and satellite city of Kochi, biggest city and business capital of Kearala sate, India) for treating its solid waste. Municipal Corporation has its own dumping yard, which is in the mid of highly populated area, national highway and railway station. Very important point is that this yard in the river side, in which river is utilized for drinking water supply by water authority and industrial water supply for more than 20 major industries. Now many people are suffering due to this dumping yard. Our project proposes to collect segregated waste from the sources by effective utilization of “Kumbasree’, cooperative groups from ladies supported by government are collecting the waste from individual houses as organic and inorganic by providing different color plastic containers to each house to collect plastic, organic, metallic & diapers waste. We will set up a modern plant to produce refined biogas and electricity as a final product. Plant will be set up in the municipal land to achieve “Zero Waste” as the target. Initial separation of the organic waste will be done a conveyer belt to ensure it is 100% organic. Then, it will be crushed as slurry send to primary storage tank. This slurry will be pumped to series of horizontal bio-reactors. Gas formed shall be compressed and passed through cross flow scrubber to get 95-98% pure methane. CO2 & H2S shall be separated by the refining process. This refined gas will be utilized for electric power generation. Final waste from the reactors shall be separated in to solid and liquid. Solid will be sold as organic fertilizer and liquid will be sold as organic pesticide. All inorganic waste will be segregated and utilized for recycling. The ultimate Zero Waste target will be achieved.

Nelson Abila

Busho Serenity Foundation, Ondo State, Nigeria

Title: Cassava production as an energy crop in Nigeria: Analysis of present and future potentials

Time : 15:00-15:20

Speaker
Biography:

Nelson Abila holds a Doctor of Science degree in Economics and Business Administration from the University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland. He is a development economist with special interest in fueling sustainable development and economic growth. Nelson received the Åbo Akademi Award for his publications on the subject of renewable energy development in 2014. He has also received several grants including Fortum Foundation and Hilda and Evald Nissi Foundation Scholarships. Nelson has published journal articles in high ranking international journals.

Abstract:

Cassava is increasingly being cultivated for much more than food in Nigeria. Industrial utilization of cassava for starch, ethanol and flour is on the increase in the major production belts across the country. This industrial cassava utilization trend can be seen as one of the benefits-outcomes of the many initiatives in the last two decades which aimed at further exploring the crop beyond it staple potentials. As a country facing persistent energy challenges, Nigeria can derive some succors from the production of cassava for energy. There exist opportunity for producing ethanol to meet the set target for petrol-ethanol blending. This paper explores the present and future potentials of stimulating the production of cassava as an energy crop. The paper attempts to answer the questions relating what are the advantages and disadvantages of promoting the production of cassava as an energy crop. To answer the questions of this research, data were sourced from the secondary sources, including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) production statistics. The estimation of the potential derivable biofuels from cassava is based on the ethanol yield given by Mekonnen and Hoekstra. Nigeria can derive upto 9.23 million cubic meters of ethanol from cassava based on the current production. As Nigeria is setting the stage for boosting agricultural production towards diversifying and stimulating the economy, the country must pay more attention to cassava as a crucial focal crop. The paper presents recommendations for exploiting the potentials of cassava as an energy crop.

Speaker
Biography:

Alireza Mehrdadfar has completed his master at the age of 25 years from Islamic Azad University. He is the director of energy section in FATH Company, a premier Bioenergy organization.

Abstract:

Azolla is non-native aquatic plants that introduced into the Anzali wetlands, Azolla is recognized as Environmental threat in Anzali Wetland. We produced biogas from Azolla biomass via supercritical water gasification and as result we achieved to produce biogas that contained 30% hydrogen. CHP is the sequential or simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy (usually mechanical and thermal) in a single, integrated system. We simulated and optimized different units of CHP such as gas turbine, internal combustion, sterling, and etc. and use biogas of Azolla fern as feed to investigate Azolla ability for power generation, through Aspen Plus. We achieved 1MW to 2.25MW electricity from this small scale power plants. Consequently the results of our study depicted that this fern which known as threat, can be used as an alternative biomass feedstock for efficient power generation and indicates that biogas from Azolla biomass had excellent and considerable ability in order to generate power and less NOX emission.

Break: Coffee Break @ Foyer 15:40-16:00
  • Track 4: Bioenergy Transition
    Track 7: Processes for bio energy
Location: -

Session Introduction

Ananda S. Amarasekara

Prairie View A&M University, USA

Title: Ionic liquid based artificial cellulase type catalysts for cellulosic ethanol process

Time : 16:00-16:20

Speaker
Biography:

Ananda S. Amarasekara is a professor in the Department of Chemistry at Prairie View A&M University in Texas. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the City University of New York in 1985. His research interests include cellulosic ethanol, renewable fuels, and catalysis in biomass processing. He has published ~ 100 research publications in peer-reviewed journals.

Abstract:

Efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars is a challenging step and the primary obstacle for the large scale production of cellulosic ethanol. Ionic liquids are well known for their ability to dissolve cellulose and our interest in the search for efficient catalytic methods for saccharification of polysaccharides has led us to develop -SO3H group functionalized Brönsted acidic ionic liquids (BAILs) as solvents as well as catalysts [1]. Later we found that these sulfuric acid derivatives can be used as catalysts in aqueous phase as well. For example, BAIL 1-(1-propylsulfonic)-3-methylimidazolium chloride aqueous solution was shown to be a better catalyst than H2SO4 of the same [H+] for the degradation of cellulose [2]. This observation is an important lead for the development of a BAIL based cellulase mimic type catalyst for depolymerization of cellulose. In an attempt to develop a recyclable, simple enzyme mimic type catalysts we have studied quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) of a series of BAIL catalysts and found that activity with different cation types decreases in the order: imidazolium > pyridinium > triethanol ammonium. Furthermore, we have investigated the effects of selected metal ions on 1-(1-propylsulfonic)-3-methylimidazolium chloride BAIL catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose in water at 140-170 °C. The total reducing sugar (TRS) yields produced during the hydrolysis of cellulose (DP ~ 450) in aq. 1-(1-propylsulfonic)-3-methylimidazolium chloride solution at 140 - 170 °C using Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+ Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and La3+ chlorides as co-catalysts as well as interactions of catalysts with cellulose are shown in the figure below. These results show that cellulose samples heated with Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+ as co-catalysts produce significantly higher TRS yields compared to the sample heated without the metal ions. The highest catalytic effect enhancement is observed with Mn2+ and produced TRS yields of 59.1, 78.4, 91.8, and 91.9 % at 140, 150, 160, and 170 °C respectively; whereas cellulose hydrolyzed without Mn2+ produced TRS yields of 9.8, 16.5, 28.0, and 28.7 % at the same four temperatures. This is a 503, 375, 228, and 220 % enhancement in TRS yield due to the addition of Mn2+ as a co-catalyst to BAIL catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis at 140, 150, 160 and 170 °C respectively. This paper will present the development of BAIL based artificial cellulase type catalysts, QSAR studies, catalyst immobilizations, applications on lignocellulosic biomass materials (corn stover, switchgrass, poplar) and recycling studies.

Speaker
Biography:

Janusz A. Kozinski is the Founding Dean and Professor in Lassonde School of Engineering at York University, Canada. His multi-disciplinary research background relates to thermodynamics, space science, chemical and biological engineering. Some of his notable works are in supercritical water gasification for biofuel production, hydrothermal flames for toxic waste remediation, next generation nuclear energy reactors and development of immune buildings systems.

Abstract:

The adverse effects of climate change resulting from increasing greenhouse gas emissions and intense consumption of fossil fuels are well-known. The pollution of natural resources, such as water, air and soil, by refractory industrial wastes has also become a global environmental concern. The effluents from dairy industries are one of such wastes that require proper attention prior to disposal. Dairy effluents are comprised chiefly of spoiled milk, yogurt, cream, cheese whey, fat and other milk-based products. The dairy industry effluents, including whey waste and milk-based residues, are enriched in lactose and minor amounts of glucose that could potentially be converted to biofuels and biochemicals. Lactose was used in this work as a model compound of dairy effluents for gasification in supercritical water using a continuous flow tubular reactor. Four parameters impacting supercritical water gasification were studied, namely temperature (550-700°C), residence time (30-75 s), feed concentration (4-10 wt%) and catalyst concentration (0.2-0.8 wt%). The best total gas yields, carbon gasification efficiency, H2 yields and other major gases (CO2 and CH4) were obtained at 700°C using a feed concentration of 4 wt% lactose and a residence time of 60 s at 25 MPa. Furthermore, catalytic lactose gasification involving 0.8 wt% Na2CO3 resulted in maximum H2 yield (22.4 mol/mol) compared to those obtained by 0.8 wt% K2CO3 (21.5 mol/mol) and non- catalytic gasification (16 mol/mol). The results indicate that waste effluents from dairy industries could potentially serve as an attractive raw material for hydrogen production from gasification.

Speaker
Biography:

Jordan Godwin is a Biofuels Analyst for Platts in Houston, Texas. He has covered biofuels pricing, trends and policies since 2012, originally serving as a price reporter on the U.S. ethanol, biodiesel and RINs markets for two years before moving over to the Platts Analytics team. His main areas of focus include supply/demand forecasts, tracking global trade flows and other trends in the biofuels industries, with a key focus on North American, Asian and African markets. Prior to joining Platts, he served as a journalist for two years after receiving his Bachelor of Journalism for the University of Texas at Austin in 2010.

Abstract:

With so much uncertainty plaguing global biofuels markets in 2015, producers, investors, traders and market participants of all backgrounds need answers on what direction the industry takes in 2016. How has the historic oil decline affected the biofuels outlook in the past six months, and what does it mean for the industry moving forward? Will policy setbacks in the US and UK continue to stunt biofuel industry growth in 2016? How can the markets thrive with explosively volatile feedstock agriculture prices dragging margins on for a rollercoaster ride? Will Asian and Middle Eastern markets continue to emerge as major consumers in 2016 and if so, how can Western holders capitalize? Platts offers answers to all of these questions with our vast and in-depth global biofuels market coverage. For nearly three years, I worked as a price reporter with an ear on the ground as US ethanol markets shifted all over the place, driven by wild corn prices and federal government policy swings. Now, my mission as a Biofuels Analyst is to provide insight into both the status quo in the global biofuels picture as well as the future of the markets, utilizing specific historical trends and dozens of producer margin models.

Speaker
Biography:

Umaiyakunjaram R. has completed his UG Civil Engineering in Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu, India in 1985 and completed his PG Civil/Environmental Engineering in Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Tamilnadu, India in 2000. He is pursuing Ph.D in Anna university, Chennai, India from January 2011. He has been working as Environmental Engineer in Pollution Control Board, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract:

A pilot-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating fine screened and equalized raw tannery waste water without any pretreatment was investigated in this paper to explore the biogas yield from both particulate (CODP) & soluble organic pollutants (CODS). Flat sheet anaerobic membrane with pore size of 0.4 µm was used in this study and evaluated its performance of biogas production with Organic Loading Rate of 12 g of COD.L-1d-1. Anaerobic microbial growth in the SAMBR was measured and compared with VSS (mg.L-1) at elapsed time intervals which was further evaluated using membrane fouling characteristics by scanning electron microscope picture (SEM) of membrane, permeate velocity, CODin, CODout, COD in the reactor, biogas yield and composition of biogas etc., The biogas generation started from the 9th day and reached the maximum by 27th day. Initially volatile suspended solids (VSSs) and total suspended solids (TSSs) in the reactor were 4 g. L-1 and 5 g. L-1 respectively with ratio of 0.80. On the 27th day, the VSS and TSS in the SAMBR have reached a maximum value of 24 g. L-1 and 27 g. L-1 respectively with ratio of 0.89. The permeate flux was maintained at 7.06 LMH which is less than the critical flux discussed in literatures and due to that fact there was no reduction in permeate flux till the end of the experiment. Also at steady conditions, high treatment efficiency was achieved by the SAMBR with COD removal efficiency of approximately 97.14%. The methane content in the biogas was observed between 60 to 70%. High R2 value was observed between NH3 levels and Alkalinity during high fouling conditions attributed to precipitation of ammonium acetate salt or struvite responsible for membrane fouling. The optimum VFA/Alkalinity ratio was 0.5, which was consistent with the peak gas yield conditions. The study recommends the removal of NH3 to avoid the membrane fouling at high OLR of 12 g of COD.L-1d-1 treating raw tannery waste water.